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25: Focal dystonia: diagnostic, therapy, rehabilitation

Altenmüller E (2003) Focal dystonia: advances in brain imaging and understanding of fine motor control in musicians. Hand Clin 19(3): 523-538

Altenmüller E (2007) From the Neanderthal to the concert hall: development of sensory motor skills and brain plasticity in music performance. In: A Williamon, D Coimbra (eds): Proceedings of the International Symposium on Performance Science 2007. European Association of Conservatoires (AEC), Utrecht

Bara-Jimenez W, Shelton P, Hallett M (2000) Spatial discrimination is abnormal in focal hand dystonia. Neurology 55 (12): 1869-1873

Bara-Jiminez W, Catalan MJ, Hallett M, Gerloff C (1998) Abnormal sensory homunculus in dystonia of the hand. Ann Neurol 44(5): 828-831

Boullet L (2003) Treating focal dystonia - A new retraining therapy for pianists. In: R Kopiez, AC Lehmann, I Wolther, C Wolf (eds): Abstracts of the 5th Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM). Hanover University of Music and Drama, Hanover

Braun C, Schweizer R, Heinz U, Wiech K, Birbaumer N, Topka H (2003) Task-specific plasticity of somatosensory cortex in patients with writer’s cramp. Neuroimage 20: 1329-1338

Byl N, Nagarajan SS, Newton N, McKenzie AL (2000) Effect of sensory discrimination training on structure and function in a musician with focal hand dystonia. Phys Therapy Case Reports 3: 94-113

Byl NN, McKenzie A (2000) Treatment effectiveness for patients with a history of repetitive hand use and focal hand dystonia: a planned prospective follow-up study. J Hand Ther 13(4): 289-301

Byl NN, McKenzie A (2002) The effect of sensory discrimination training on structure and function in patients with focal hand dystonia: 3 case series. Arch of Phys Med and Rehab 84: 1505-1514

Byl NN, Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM (1996) A primate genesis model of focal dystonia and repetitive strain injury: Learning-induced dedifferentiation of the representation of the hand in the primary somatosensory cortex in adult monkeys. Neurology 47(2): 508-520

Byl NN, Priori A (2006) The development of focal dystonia in musicians as a consequence of maladaptive plasticity: implications for intervention. In: E Altenmüller, J Kesselring, M Wiesendanger (eds): Music motor control and the brain. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Candia V, Schafer T, Taub E, Rau H, Altenmüller E, Rockstroh B, Elbert T (2002) Sensory motor retuning: a behavioral treatment for focal hand dystonia of pianists and guitarists. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83(10): 1342-1348

Candia V, Wienbruch C, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Ray W (2003) Effective behavioral treatment of focal hand dystonia in musicians alters somatosensory cortical organization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(13): 7942-7946

Charness ME, Ross MH, Shefner JM (1996) Ulnar neuropathy and dystonic flexion of the fourth and fifth digits: clinical correlation in musicians. Muscle Nerve 19(4): 431-437

Delmaire C, Krainik A, Tézenas du Montcel S, Gerardin E, Meunier S, Mangin JF, Sangla S, Garnero L, Vidailhet M, Lehéricy S (2005) Disorganized somatotopy in the putamen of patients with focal hand dystonia. Neurology 64(8): 1391-1396

Deuschl G, Bain P (2002) Deep brain stimulation for tremor [correction of trauma]: patient selection and evaluation. Mov Disord 17 (Suppl 3): S102-11

Elbert T, Candia V, Altenmüller E, Rau H, Rockstroh B, Pantev C, Taub E (1998) Alteration of digital representations in somatosensory cortex in focal hand dystonia. Neuroreport 16: 3571-3575

Elbert T, Pantev C, Wienbruch C, Rockstroh B, Taub E (1995) Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science 270(5234): 305-307

Fahn S (1989) Assessment of primary dystonias. In: TL Munsat (ed): Quantification of neurologic deficit. Butterworths, Boston

Fahn S, Bressman SB, Marsden CD (1998) Classification of dystonia. Adv Neurol 78: 1-10

Fiorio M, Tinazzi M, Bertolasi L, Aglioti SM (2003) Temporal processing of visuotactile and tactile stimuli in writer’s cramp. Ann Neurol 53(5): 630-635

Flor H, Braun C, Elbert T, Birbaumer N (1997) Extensive reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in chronic back pain patients. Neurosci Lett 224(1): 5-8

Fukaya C, Katayama Y, Kano T, Nagaoka T, Kobayashi K, Oshima H, Yamamoto T (2007) Thalamic deep brain stimulation for writer’s cramp. J Neurosurg 107(5): 977-982

Jabusch HC, Altenmüller E (2006) Epidemiology, phenomenology and therapy of musician’s cramp. In: E Altenmüller, J Kesselring, M Wiesendanger (eds): Music, motor control and the brain. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Jabusch HC, Müller SV, Altenmüller E (2004) Anxiety in musicians with focal dystonia and those with chronic pain. Mov Disord 19(10): 1169-1175

Jabusch HC, Schneider U, Altenmüller E (2004) Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) improves motor control in a patient with musician’s dystonia. Mov Disord 19(8): 990-991

Jabusch HC, Zschucke D, Schmidt A, Schuele S, Altenmüller E (2005) Focal dystonia in musicians: treatment strategies and long-term outcome in 144 patients. Mov Disord 20(12): 1623-1626

Jankovic J (ed) (2005) Dystonia. Seminars in Clinical Neurology, Vol 3. Demos Medical Publishing LLC, New York

Lederman RJ (1991) Focal dystonia in instrumentalists: clinical features. Med Probl Perform Art 6(4): 132-136

Lenz FA, Byl NN (1999) Reorganization in the cutaneous core of the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus (Ventral caudal) in patients with dystonia. J Neurophysiol 82(6): 3204-3212

Liepert J, Tegenthoff M, Malin JP (1995) Changes in cortical motor area size during immobilization. Clin Neurophysiol 97: 382-386

Lim V, Altenmüller E (2003) Musicians Cramp: Instrumental and gender differences. Med Probl Perf Artists 18: 21-27

McKenzie AL, Nagarajan SS, Roberts TP, Merzenich MM, Byl NN (2003) Somatosensory representation of the digits and clinical performance in patients with focal hand dystonia. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 82: 737-749

Molloy FM, Carr TD, Zeuner KE, Dambrosia JM, Hallett M (2003)Abnormalities of spatial discrimination in focal and generalized dystonia. Brain 126: 2175-2182

Münte TF, Altenmüller E, Jäncke L (2002) The musician’s brain as a model of neuroplasticity. Nature Reviews 3: 473-478

Nakashima K, Kusumi M, Inoue Y, Takahashi K (1995) Prevalence of focal dystonias in the western area of Tottori Prefecture in Japan. Mov Disord 10(4): 440-443

Naumann M, Magyar-Lehmann S, Reiners K, Erbguth F, Leenders KL (2000) Sensory tricks in cervical dystonia: perceptual dysbalance of parietal cortex modulates frontal motor programming. Ann Neurol 47(3): 322-328

Naumann M, Pirker W, Reiners K, Lange KW, Becker G, Brucke T (1998) Imaging the pre- and postsynaptic side of striatal dopaminergic synapses in idiopathic cervical dystonia: a SPECT study using [123I] epidepride and [123I] beta-CIT. Mov Disord 13(2): 319-323

Nutt JG, Muenter MD, Melton LJ 3rd, Aronson A, Kurland LT (1988) Epidemiology of dystonia in Rochester, Minnesota. Adv Neurol 50: 361-365

Nygaard TG, Marsden CD, Fahn S (1991) Doparesponsive dystonia: long-term treatment response and prognosis. Neurology 41(2 (Pt 1)): 174-181

Pesenti A, Barbieri S, Priori A (2004) Limb immobilization for occupational dystonia: a possible alternative treatment for selected patients. Adv Neurol 94: 247-254

Preibisch C, Berg D, Hofmann E, Solymosi L, Naumann M (2001) Cerebral activation patterns in patients with writer’s cramp: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol 248(1): 10-17

Ragert P, Schmid A, Altenmüller E, Dinse R (2004) Meta-plasticity in musicians. Eur J Neurosci 19: 473-478

Rosenbaum F, Jankovic J (1988) Focal task-specific tremor and dystonia; categorization of occupational movement disorders. Neurology 38: 522-527

Rosenkranz K, Altenmüller E, Siggelkow S, Dengler R (2000) Alteration of sensorimotor integration in musician’s cramp: Impaired focusing of proprioception. Clin Neurophysiol 111: 2040-2045

Rosenkranz K, Butler K, Williamon A, Cordivari C, Lees AJ, Rothwell JC (2008) Sensorimotor reorganization by proprioceptive training in musician’s dystonia and writer’s cramp. Neurology 70(4): 304-315

Rosenkranz K, Williamon A, Butler K, Cordivari C, Lees AJ, Rothwell JC (2005) Pathophysiological differences between musician’s dystonia and writer’s cramp. Brain 128: 918-931

Sanger TD, Tarsy DM, Pascual-Leone A (2001) Abnormalities of spatial and temporal sensory discrimination in writer’s cramp. Mov Disord 16: 94-99

Schmidt A, Jabusch HC, Altenmüller E, Hagenah J, Brüggemann N, Hedrich K, Saunders-Pullman R, Bressman SB, Kramer PL, Klein C (2006) Dominantly transmitted focal dystonia in families of patients with musician’s cramp. Neurology 67(4): 691-693

Schuele SU, Jabusch HC, Lederman RJ, Altenmüller E (2005) Botulinum toxin injections of musician’s dystonia. Neurology 64: 341-343

Tinazzi M, Fiaschi A, Rosso T, Faccioli F, Grosslercher J, Aglioti SM (2000) Neuroplastic changes related to pain occur at multiple levels of the human somatosensory system: A somatosensoryevoked potentials study in patients with cervical radicular pain. J Neurosci 20(24): 9277-9283

Topka H, Jankovic J, Dichgans J (2002) Dyskinesias. In: T Brandt, L Caplan, J Dichgans, HC Diener, C Kennard (eds): Neurological disorders: course and treatment. Academic Press, New York

Tubiana R, Chamagne P (2000) Prolonged rehabilitation treatment of musician’s focal dystonia. In: R Tubiana, PC Amadio (eds): Medical problems of the instrumentalist musician. Martin Dunitz Ltd, London

Zeuner KE, Bara-Jimenez W, Noguchi PS, Goldstein SR, Dambrosia JM, Hallett M (2002) Sensory training for patients with focal hand dystonia. Ann Neurol 51(5): 593-598

Zeuner KE, Hallett M (2003) Sensory training as treatment for focal hand dystonia: A 1-year follow up. Mov Disord 18: 1044-1047